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Date: 07/12/2015
Doctoral thesis
Rail Tunnel Evacuation

Rail Tunnel Evacuation

In this thesis, human behavior in rail tunnel fires is explored. Descriptive knowledge is presented related to the evacuation of passenger trains, and the subsequent tunnel evacuation to a safe location. More specifically, a theoretical framework that can aid the understanding of human behavior is identified, and its applicability to rail tunnels is demonstrated. In addition, new empirical data on the flow rate capacity of train exits during evacuation in rail tunnels, as well as on walking speeds in smoke free and smoke filled rail tunnels, is presented. Finally, a number of technical installations that may facilitate orientation, movement and exit choice in rail tunnels are suggested. The findings are presented in relation to previously conducted empirical studies, and a discussion is also made on how the findings can be used in application and design.


Human behavior in fire, evacuation, underground rail transportation system, metro, tunnel, train, experiment, flow
rate of people, walking speed, smoke.


Fridolf, K. (2015). Rail Tunnel Evacuation. (Doctoral thesis), Lund University, Lund.